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Get started today Limited-time offer: buy Twinmotion There are several reasons for the "vanishing" fetus, including it being embodied or absorbed by the other fetus, placenta or the mother.
This is known as vanishing twin syndrome. Also, in an unknown proportion of cases, two zygotes may fuse soon after fertilization, resulting in a single chimeric embryo, and, later, fetus.
Conjoined twins or the once-commonly used term "siamese" are monozygotic twins whose bodies are joined together during pregnancy.
This occurs when the zygote starts to split after day 12  following fertilization and fails to separate completely.
This condition occurs in about 1 in 50, human pregnancies. Most conjoined twins are now evaluated for surgery to attempt to separate them into separate functional bodies.
The degree of difficulty rises if a vital organ or structure is shared between twins, such as the brain , heart or liver. A chimera is an ordinary person or animal except that some of their parts actually came from their twin or from the mother.
A chimera may arise either from monozygotic twin fetuses where it would be impossible to detect , or from dizygotic fetuses, which can be identified by chromosomal comparisons from various parts of the body.
The number of cells derived from each fetus can vary from one part of the body to another, and often leads to characteristic mosaicism skin coloration in human chimeras.
A chimera may be intersex , composed of cells from a male twin and a female twin. In one case DNA tests determined that a woman, mystifyingly, was not the mother of two of her three children; she was found to be a chimera, and the two children were conceived from eggs derived from cells of their mother's twin.
Sometimes one twin fetus will fail to develop completely and continue to cause problems for its surviving twin.
One fetus acts as a parasite towards the other. Sometimes the parasitic twin becomes an almost indistinguishable part of the other, and sometimes this needs to be treated medically.
A very rare type of parasitic twinning is one where a single viable twin is endangered when the other zygote becomes cancerous, or "molar".
This means that the molar zygote's cellular division continues unchecked, resulting in a cancerous growth that overtakes the viable fetus.
Typically, this results when one twin has either triploidy or complete paternal uniparental disomy , resulting in little or no fetus and a cancerous, overgrown placenta, resembling a bunch of grapes.
Occasionally, a woman will suffer a miscarriage early in pregnancy, yet the pregnancy will continue; one twin was miscarried but the other was able to be carried to term.
This occurrence is similar to the vanishing twin syndrome, but typically occurs later, as the twin is not reabsorbed.
It is very common for twins to be born at a low birth weight. More than half of twins are born weighing less than 5. Premature birth and low birth weights, especially when under 3.
Monozygotic twins who share a placenta can develop twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. This condition means that blood from one twin is being diverted into the other twin.
One twin, the 'donor' twin, is small and anemic , the other, the 'recipient' twin, is large and polycythemic. The lives of both twins are endangered by this condition.
Stillbirths occurs when a fetus dies after 20 weeks of gestation. There are two types of stillbirth, including intrauterine death and intrapartum death.
Intrauterine death occurs when a baby dies during late pregnancy. Intrapartum death, which is more common, occurs when a baby dies while the mother is giving birth.
The cause of stillbirth is often unknown, but the rate of babies who are stillborn is higher in twins and multiple births.
Caesareans or inductions are advised after 38 weeks of pregnancy for twins, because the risk of stillbirth increases after this time.
Heterotopic pregnancy is an exceedingly rare type of dizygotic twinning in which one twin implants in the uterus as normal and the other remains in the fallopian tube as an ectopic pregnancy.
Ectopic pregnancies must be resolved because they can be life-threatening to the mother. However, in most cases, the intrauterine pregnancy can be salvaged.
For otherwise healthy twin pregnancies where both twins are head down a trial of vaginal delivery is recommended at between 37 and 38 weeks.
Twin studies are utilized in an attempt to determine how much of a particular trait is attributable to either genetics or environmental influence.
These studies compare monozygotic and dizygotic twins for medical , genetic , or psychological characteristics to try to isolate genetic influence from epigenetic and environmental influence.
Twins that have been separated early in life and raised in separate households are especially sought-after for these studies, which have been used widely in the exploration of human nature.
Classical twin studies are now being supplemented with molecular genetic studies which identify individual genes.
This phenomenon is known as heteropaternal superfecundation. One study estimates that the frequency of heteropaternal superfecundation among dizygotic twins, whose parents were involved in paternity suits, was approximately 2.
Dizygotic twins from biracial couples can sometimes be mixed twins , which exhibit differing ethnic and racial features.
One such pairing was born in London in to a white mother and Caribbean father. Among monozygotic twins, in extremely rare cases, twins have been born with different sexes one male, one female.
The probability of this is so small that multiples having different sexes is universally accepted as a sound basis for in utero clinical determination that the multiples are not monozygotic.
Another abnormality that can result in monozygotic twins of different sexes is if the egg is fertilized by a male sperm but during cell division only the X chromosome is duplicated.
This results in one normal male XY and one female with Turner syndrome 45,X. Monozygotic twins can develop differently, due to their genes being differently activated.
As of [update] , only two cases have been reported. Both ova are then fertilized, each by a different sperm, and the coalesced zygotes undergo further cell duplications developing as a chimeric blastomere.
If this blastomere then undergoes a twinning event, two embryos will be formed, with different paternal genetic information and identical maternal genetic information.
This results in a set of twins with identical gene sequence from the mother's side, but different sequences from the father's side.
Cells in each fetus carry chromosomes from either sperm, resulting in chimeras. This form had been speculated until only recently being recorded in Western medicine.
In , a study reported a case of a pair of living twins, which shared an identical set of maternal chromosomes, while each having a distinct set of paternal chromosomes, albeit from the same man, and thus they most likely share half of their father's genetic makeup.
The twins were both found to be chimeras. One was an intersex XX, and one a XY male. The exact mechanism of fertilization could not be determined but the study stated that it was unlikely to be a case of polar body twinning.
A second case of sesquizygotic twins was reported in Mirror image twins result when a fertilized egg splits later in the embryonic stage than normal timing, around day 9— This type of twinning could exhibit characteristics with reversed asymmetry, such as opposite dominant handedness, dental structure, or even organs situs inversus.
There is no DNA-based zygosity test that can determine if twins are indeed mirror image. There have been many studies highlighting the development of language in twins compared to single-born children.
These studies have converged on the notion that there is a greater rate of delay in language development in twins compared to their single-born counterparts.
Another term to describe what some people call "twin talk" is cryptophasia where a language is developed by twins that only they can understand.
The increased focused communication between two twins may isolate them from the social environment surrounding them.
Idioglossia has been found to be a rare occurrence and the attention of scientists has shifted away from this idea.
However, there are researchers and scientists that say cryptophasia or idioglossia is not a rare phenomenon. Current research is looking into the impacts of a richer social environment for these twins to stimulate their development of language.
Twins are common in many mammal species, including cats , sheep , ferrets , giant pandas , dolphins , dogs , deer , marmosets , tamarins , and elephants.
A female calf that is the twin of a bull becomes partially masculinized and is known as a freemartin. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Twin disambiguation. One of two offspring produced by the same pregnancy. Main article: Populated places with highest incidence of multiple birth.
Main article: Vanishing twin. Main article: Conjoined twins. Main article: Chimera genetics. Main article: Parasitic twin.
Main article: Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Main article: Twin study. Cummings "Human Heredity Principles and issues" p.
Retrieved Independent Online. BBC World Service. Bomsel-Helmreich; W. Al Mufti In Louis G. Keith; Emile Papierik; Donald M.
Keith; Barbara Luke eds. Taylor and Francis. Clues to fertility, a student discovers". Newell, Marie-Louise ed.
Clinical Perinatology. Unlike singleton gestation where identification of patients at risk for PTL is often difficult, every multiple gestation is at risk for PTL, so all patients can be managed as being at risk.
Go Ask Alice! Archived from the original on 17 January Retrieved 15 March Understanding Genetics. Stanford School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 15 February China Daily.
Entry 1 of 3 1 a : either of two offspring produced in the same pregnancy b Twins plural : gemini 2 : one of two persons or things closely related to or resembling each other 3 : a compound crystal composed of two adjoining crystals or parts of crystals of the same kind that share a common plane of atoms twin.
The twins went swimming after lunch. My sister just had twins. Sarah and her brother are twins. Adjective the twin goals of reducing oil dependence and protecting the environment See More Recent Examples on the Web: Noun Stepka said the men are accused of having a close connection to Adam Fox, a man charged federally in the plot and accused of being its ringleader, and that at least one twin traveled out of the state for a meeting on the plot.
Attorneys spar. Roustan, sun-sentinel. Then a shooter came to her motel door. District Judge Dee Benson dies at age 72 from brain cancer," 30 Nov.
Free Agency Frenzy: 5 Takeaways," 25 Nov. Send us feedback. Accessed 9 Dec. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for twin twin. Entry 1 of 3 : either one of two babies that are born at the same time to the same mother : either one of two similar things that form a pair twin.
Entry 1 of 2 1 : either of two offspring produced at one birth 2 : one of two persons or things closely related to or very like each other On the opposite side of the river is the city's twin.